Jose Miguel López-Higuera
University of Cantabria, CIBER-BBN and IDIVAL, Spain
KEYNOTE TITLE: Healing with light: The potential of photodynamic therapy
Prof. López-Higuera is the founder and head of the Photonics Engineering Group of the University of Cantabria, CIBER-BBN of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III and IDIVAL of Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Spain. He is a Member of a wide set of international Committees of Conferences, R&D Institutions, and Companies in the area of photonic sensing. His work is focused on optical sensor systems and instrumentations for any sector application. He has worked in a wide range of R&D&i projects, acting in more than 90 of them as manager. He has contributed with more than 700 research publications including 20 patents closely related to optical and fiber techniques for sensors and instrumentations. He has worked as an editor and co-author of four R&D international books, as a co-editor of several conference proceedings and Journals and he has been the director of 18 PhD theses. He is co-founder of three technology-based companies. Prof. López-Higuera is a Fellow of OSA, Fellow of SPIE, Senior of IEEE and a Member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Cantabria, Spain.
Light Science and Technologies (Photonics) now touches almost every area of our lives including the healing and health care one. To provide the health and care services required in this period of our lives, new breakthroughs and new cost-effective methods for improved diagnosis, and therapy are very welcome.
In this talk, we will explore the potential of healing of a treatment activate by light to overcome cancer, pre-cancer and chronic diseases: the Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). PDT, offers a localized treatment against cancer and infectious lesions, by using specialized compounds or photosensitizers (PS) activated by Light to produce disease killing Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). These, can directly damage cells and/or vasculature, with little damage to surrounding tissue, and also could produce the indirect effect of alarming the immune system against the specific cancer.
In this invited keynote, after the clarification of what can be understood as Photodynamic Therapy how it does work and devices required, several significant cases will be presented and discussed. Then, the potential of PDT to be used alone or “harmonically” combined with the already commonly used “standard” therapies to reach a higher or better level of healing, will be mentioned in the presentation. After that, the attendees will be aware of the of power of healing with this light based therapy and its significant impact on the modern medicine of XXI century.
Maxim S Pshenichnikov
University of Groningen, Netherlands
KEYNOTE PRESENTATION: Lab-on-a-chip Spectroscopy: Learning the structural complexity
Maxim S. Pshenchnikov obtained his PhD from Moscow State University in 1987. In 1992, he moved to the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, as a postdoctoral fellow, to join the staff in 1996, first at the department of chemistry, and since 2006 at the department of physics. In the early 90s, he began to design experiments and theoretical description of femtosecond spectroscopy on liquid state dynamics. He with co-workers was the first to report time-gated and heterodyne-detected photon echoes from solutions. The technical aspects of this work culminated in 1998 with the Guinness Book of World Records certificate awarded for “The shortest flashes of light produced and measured, lasted for 4.5 femtosecond”. Later, his research was focused on hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquids and at (bio)interfaces. He published 150+ papers in international journals and 6 chapters in books, which altogether received more than 4800 citations (h-index 37). He organized and co-chaired a number of international meetings in the fields of spectroscopy, organic electronics and excitonics. Since 2016, he is also a visiting professor at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.His current research interests cover a wide range of ultrafast phenomena in organic materials at nanoscopic lengths and ultrafast time scales, with the focus on exciton and charge dynamics in energy-related and bio-inspired materials.
The natural light-harvesting antennae of plants and photosynthetic bacteria are one of the most fascinating functional molecular nanoassemblies. Their unprecedented quantum efficiency relies on the strong coupling between thousands of densely packed chromophores giving rise to highly delocalized excitons which travels over long distances. However, the structural complexity of these systems leads to spectral congestion thereby blurring individual exciton transfer pathways that are vital to unravel for potential applications. Artificial model systems allow for better understanding of the structure-property relationship through reducing the complexity of natural light-harvesting complexes and disclosing the working principles to the basic elements.
Here we demonstrate a novel spectroscopic/microfluidics approach to deconvolute the supramolecular hierarchy of the model system, multilayered nanotubes. The outer shell is selectively unwrapped in a microfluidic cuvette thereby providing a sufficient time window for ultrafast spectroscopy, before the original structure is re-established. We will also discuss the intermediate dynamical states of self-assembly by combining microfluidics, ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy, and extensive computer simulations.
Manish D Kulkarni
Diagnostic Solutions & Systems, USA
KEYNOTE PRESENTATION: Next generation ophthalmic imaging
Manish is also the CEO of Diagnostic Solutions & Systems (DiagSoSys), whose mission is to accelerate innovation and product development while simultaneously, shrinking "the cost to market" for complex products. Manish has a strong experience in developing high performance biomedical imaging & sensing systems. Manish holds 10 issued and 5 pending US patents, and has published 2 book chapters & 35 articles. Prior to starting DiagSoSys, Manish was working at KLA-Tencor, where he developed high yield mask-inspection-systems for semiconductor manufacturing. Manish also worked at Carl Zeiss Meditec, where he developed optical coherence tomography, a novel medical technology for sub-surface micron-resolution imaging. Manish has a PhD in Biomedical Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, a MS in Physics from Michigan Tech and a BTech from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.
Eye disorders and vision loss are among the costliest conditions to the global economy. The population in developed countries suffering from eye diseases is increasing due to demographic trends & higher incidence of diabetes. Growing middle-class in emerging markets require a high quality & affordable solution. Ophthalmologists and optometrists lack a reliable early-diagnostic device for disease diagnosis. Typical methods provide diagnosis only after the eye has suffered irreparable damage. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmic diagnostics. We are developing a next generation OCT based disruptive technology for early diagnostics of ocular pathologies such as macular diseases, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Our OCT based devices could diagnose diseases before the onset of irreversible vision loss by providing ultra-high resolution images & real time retinal blood circulation maps. We will present an overview of the current advances inophthalmology as well as our innovative solutions.
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
KEYNOTE TITLE: Long-range optical interactions
Will be updated shortly
Nonlinear optical phenomena are typically local. We have predicted the possibility of highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities mediated by long-range interactions of photons propagating in atomic media [Shahmoon et al.]. Part of our predictions has concerned the possibility of entangling photons in waveguides that has recently been experimentally confirmed by M.Lukin’s group. It has grown out of our work on the enhancement of long-range interactions by virtual quanta exchanged via the bath in confined geometries [Friedler et al.]. It is at present the only mechanism capable of deterministically entangling distant photons. This mechanism is one of our predictions of bath-induced entanglement [Rao et al.]. Its essence is that the mediation of virtual quanta by the modes of a waveguide can cause their enhancement by many orders of magnitude and drastically extend their range [Shahmoon et al.].
For atoms trapped near a nano-waveguide, where long-range interactions between the atoms can be tailored in an electromagnetically-induced transparency configuration, the atomic interactions may be translated to long-range interactions between photons and thus to highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities. We find a roton-like excitation spectrum for light [O’Dell et al.] and the emergence of order in its output intensity.
For atoms coupled to a waveguide with a bandgap spectrum illuminated by an off-resonant laser, the resulting dynamics of the atoms is predominantly affected by an extremely long-range conservative force that can enhance their interaction.
Even more dramatic, giant, enhancement of the interaction is achievable via the control of the geometry, for dipolar forces induced by the electromagnetic vacuum, namely, the Casimir and van der Waals (vdW) forces. The idea is to consider atoms coupled to an electric transmission line (TL), such as a coaxial cable or coplanar waveguide, which support the propagation of quasi-1d transverse electromagnetic (TEM) modes. Virtual excitations (photons) of these extended modes can mediate much stronger and longer-range Casimir and vdW forces than in free-space [Shahmoon et al.].These predictions open the door to studies of unexplored wave dynamics and many-body physics with highly-nonlocal interactions of optical fields in one dimension.
Yosef Ben Ezra
Holon Institute of Technology (HIT), Israel and Cellowireless LTD., Holon, Israel, Israel
Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) Applications in High Spectral Efficiency (SE) Optical Communication Systems
Prof. Yosef Ben Ezra, Dean of Engineering faculty at Holon institute of Technology and CTO at Mer Group, received his Ph.D. from the Tel-Aviv University. During 2003-2005Prof. Ben-Ezra was the principleresearcher in joint industry-academy project TRANSMOR focused on automatic detection and classification ofpower transients in WDM optical communication networks. Between 2007-2009 Prof. Yosef Ben-Ezra was the principle researcher in a joint industry-academy project, DIAMOND, thatdeveloped high-spectral-efficient modulation techniques formodern optical communications. In the framework of MAGNET project Tera-Santa Prof. Ben-Ezra develop the novel method of OFDM based on Multiwavelets. He is currently working on the silicon photonic implementation of the Multiwavelet OFDM in Peta-Cloud consortium. He has co-authoredover 85 papers in international journals and conferences in fields of semiconductorphysics and nonlinear effects, and optical communication. He is the author 15 chapters in scientific books and of 12 patents.
There exist two approaches to the signal processing in the optical communication systems: the electric domain signal processing and the optical signal processing , . In the latter case, the fast nonlinear optical phenomena such as self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), four-wave mixing (FWM) are used for the digital, analogue and quantum information processing . The passive photonic components such as Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) and ring resonators can also be used as basic elements for the all-optical signal processing . The optical signal processing increases the processing speed and reduces the energy consumption and latency of the optical communication systems . Such operations as all-optical wavelength conversion (WC), radio and microwave frequency pulse generation and beam forming, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), switching, regeneration, can be realized -. Coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) systems combine the advantages of coherent detection and OFDM modulation , . However, the performance of CO-OFDM systems strongly deteriorates due to the inter-symbol-interference (ISI) and inter-carrier-interference caused by the channel chromatic dispersion and polarization dispersion (PMD) , . The different types of the wavelet packet transform analysis such as a wavelet packet transform (WPT), multi-wavelet and complex wavelet analysis for the CO-OFDM systems had been proposed instead of discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and inverse DFT (IDFT) -. In such a case, the signal is expanded in an orthogonal set of wavelet packets (WPs) as the basis functions, where each channel occupies a separate WP .
We investigated numerically the advanced modulation formats QAM 16, QAM 4 for the 1Tb/s transmission in the long-haul WPT-OFDM systems. The comparison of these system performance with the conventional OFDM systems shows that the WPT-OFDM systems have some advantages.
Nanoalmyona BV, Netherlands, Netherlands
Lab-on-a-Chip Photonic Biosensors for Point-of-Care Applications
Aurel Ymeti is co-Founder and CEO of Nanoalmyona BV, a hightech Dutch company specialized in research and technology development, project management and new business development in Hightech Systems and Materials, including integrated photonics, Lab-on-a-Chip biosensing, optoelectronics, microscopy and nanomedicine.
He received a MSc in Theoretical Physics from the University of Tirana, Albania, in 1996, and a PhD in Applied Physics/Nanotechnology from the University of Twente, Netherlands, in 2004, working on the development of ultrasensitive multichannel integrated photonic (bio-)sensing platforms. Subsequently, he worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at the same University on development of portable devices for staging of HIV infection in point-of-care settings, later commercialized by Immunicon/Veridex (J&J).
In 2008 Aurel co-founded Ostendum, a spin-off company of the MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology of the University of Twente, focusing on the commercialization of extremely sensitive and label-free optical analysis methods for rapid detection of micro-organisms and biomarkers based on the Lab-on-a-Chip Nanotechnology, initially invented and developed by Aurel during his PhD project. As CTO at Ostendum, he was responsible for the research and technology development, product management and new business development. In 2017 Aurel was appointed as Associate Professor at the Department of Engineering Physics, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania, working on application of High Tech Systems and Materials in innovative product development.
Aurel has (co)authored about 40 publications in refereed journals, peer-reviewed conference proceedings and books, is inventor of several patents and has presented more than 30 keynote/invited lectures in (inter)national conferences. He was/is involved as a member of the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), Optical Society of America (OSA), International AIDS Society (IAS), International Society for Analytical Cytology (ISAC) and Advisory Board Member of the Lifeboat Foundation. Aurel has served as Program Committee Member of several international conferences, including SPIE conference series of Defense, Security and Sensing (2010 – 2015).
His work on photonic biosensors has been featured in many well-known international media publications, incl. MIT’s Technology Review, Nature, Le Monde and BBC Focus Magazine and in 2007 the highly reputable business magazine FORBES has highlighted his work as one of the “13 Amazing New Nanotechnologies”. Aurel has received several awards including the prestigious European Lab-on-a-Chip Nanodevices Technology Innovation Leadership Award from FROST & SULLIVAN in 2013.
In recent years, there have been several examples of serious virus outbreaks raising significant fears that such outbreaks can rapidly spread worldwide to become pandemics with devastating effects on populations and their social and economic development. Therefore fast, on-site, and sensitive detection of viruses is essential in detecting the onset of viral epidemics and preventing their spread. Currently available methods such as PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay), used for detection of viruses and other analytes, are time-consuming, expensive and require labor-intensive sample preparation and trained personnel for their operation. This has been the motivation behind the increased interest for the development of alternative virus/analyte detection methods.
In this invited keynote, I will talk about research, development and commercialization of Lab-on-a-Chip photonic biosensors and their application for sensitive, rapid and multiplex detection of various analytes such as micro-organisms (viruses and bacteria) and biomarkers (proteins and DNA/RNA molecules). These sensors can be applied in various application areas such as health care, e.g. for early diagnosis of cancer and heart diseases, food industry, e.g. for sensitive and fast detection of bacteria infections, national security, environmental monitoring, process technology, etc.
The high sensitivity that photonic sensors can achieve could result to less sample pre-concentration handling, which contributes to faster analysis and savings on operational costs. Moreover, these sensors are simple, easy-to-use and compact, offering the possibility for development of portable/handheld devices. As such, photonic sensors are excellent candidates for fast, point-of-care analyte detection.
Universidad Miguel Hernández, Spain
Real-time up conversion to the visible of 2D infrared images
Dr. Juan Capmany(PhD. in Physics) was born in Madrid, Spain. Presently, he is a Professor at the Communications Engineering Department (Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain), where he founded and leads the Photonic Systems Group.
He worked for ten years in the Spanish Naval Research Center (CIDA) andthe Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) in the development of image intensifier tubes for night vision, and in Laser Spectroscopy of Solid-Statelaser materials,Solid-State lasers, Crystal Growth, and Nonlinear Optics at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
His main research activity has focused for the last decades on intracavitynonlinear frequency conversion in solid-state lasers and range-gated systems.
He has authored or coauthored more than 150 research publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference papers and has lead over 15 research projects. He is a Senior Member of OSA and IEEE.
Real time video of infrared images lacks presently some attractive features as compared to their VIS/NIR counterpart based on silicon CCD and CMOS Focal Plane Array (FPA) imaging sensors, with a typical response cutoff wavelength around 1 mm. Presently, although FPA image sensors based on InGaAs or InSb cover most of the infrared spectral range, they suffer from operational characteristics limitations in terms of uncooled operation, speed, noise, and resolution.
A way to circumvent these limitations in IR imaging, is through real-time nonlinear optical frequency upconversion of infrared images to the spectral detection range of silicon-based FPA imaging sensors. The 2D Fourier components of the infrared image are mixed with a pump laser wave in a nonlinear crystal to shift their spectrum by sum-frequency mixing (heterodyning) their optical frequency with the frequency of a pump laser. This techniqueallows for visualization with standard silicon CCD video cameras of images at virtually any infrared region extending even up to the THz range and multispectral IR imaging.
In this talk, the present status and foreseen trends of nonlinear image upconversion will be reviewed, including the work presently being realized in our lab, that pursues miniaturization down to quasi-monolithic diode-pumped image upconversion systems.To boost upconversion efficiency, we use nonlinear crystals based on poled ferroelectric crystals placed inside the cavity of a diode pumped solid-state laser, where the intense intracavity laser beam acts as the pump wave for the up conversion.
Queen’s University, Canada
Ultraportable nanostructured sensors for point-of-use biochemical applications
Carlos Escobedo joins Queen’s University in 2013 as an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering. He received a B.Sc. from the National University of Mexico, MSc from University of Toronto, and PhD from University of Victoria, and was an NSERC postdoctoral fellow in the Bioengineering Laboratory at ETH Zürich, Switzerland. Carlos has published papers in different scientific journals related to micro- and nanotechnology, including Lab-on-a-Chip, Analytical Chemistry, Nature Communications, Small and Nano Letters, some of them featured in Optics and Photonics News, Nanowerk and Nature Photonics. He received the prestigious Early Researcher Award and the TD Most Influential Hispanic Canadian Award in 2018, and serves as Technical Chair for MEMS and Nanotechnology in the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering. His research program involves the development of microfluidic systems, and micro- and nanostructures for analytical applications in biology, medicine and chemistry.
Metallic nanostructures support surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) that can be exploited as signal for the recognition of biochemical events. Nanostructured gratings produced by laser interference are particularly suited for point-of-use biosensing applications and are extremely cost-effective, and can be easily fabricated on practically any flat surface. Here, we present a new generation of metallic nanostructures fabricated using holographic laser-inscription that are capable of producing accurate photonic signals that can be employed as label-free (bio)sensors for the rapid, in situ detection and identification of biomarkers of diseases, illegal drugs and terrorism agents. These (bio)sensor consist of a network of three-dimensional 60-nm-thick metallic nanostructures, and can be employed for different sensing strategies, including surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The platform utilize smartphone-analogous, off-the-shelf inexpensive optical components for the generation and detection of the photonic signal. We demonstrate sensing of solutions with different refractive indices and real-time detection of biologically relevant analytes including proteins and pathogenic bacteria. The (bio)sensing platform has a production cost of less that US$1 per unit and has a sensitivity of ~103 PIU/RIU, representing a 3-fold improvement compared to current nanostructure-based sensors. This work presents a great promise towards the development of fully-integrated, handheld portable (bio)sensing platform for point-of-use applications requiring (bio)detection in real-time.
Ariel University, Israel
Integrated optical imaging and spectroscopy approach for biological tissue characterization in the spatial frequency domain
Will be updated shortly
We present, a noncontact optical setup integrating spectrometer and camera arrays to quantify optical properties of both tissue-phantoms and biological tissue by spatial light modulation. In this setup, sinusoidal light patterns are serially projected onto the sample at both low and high spatial frequencies to isolate the target’s absorption (linked to tissue metabolism) and scattering (related to tissue structure) properties. The diffuse reflected light is simultaneously acquired by single spectrometer and passes through two cameras. In addition to the extraction of the tissue’s optical properties, we calculated hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels from the hands of healthy human volunteers. An additional validation methodology based on the theoretical model-based diffusion equation in the spatial frequency domain was demonstrated. A major advantage of this parallel optical configuration lies in the ability of each component to complement the other, enabling high spectral and spatial resolution. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential of the integrated setup for diagnostic and research applications which we believe will be beneficial to the Biophotonics' community. Index Terms: Integrated optical system; Tissue characterization; Spatial frequency domain; Reflectance spectroscopy; Oxygen saturation level.
Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Belarus
Ordered Layer of Spherical Particles: Scattering and Absorption of Light
I graduated from the radiophysical faculty of the Nizhny Novgorod University (Russia), Doctor of Phys.-math. Sci., Professor, principal researcher of the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.Visiting professor of Kent (USA) and Lille (France) universities. Research interests: Composite and smart materials, Metamaterials, Photonic crystals, Solar cells, Electrooptical devices, Displays, Image science. The results are published in two monographs, seven chapters in the books, more than 300 articles in scientific journals, and 19 patents. Member of the International Committee for Imaging Science; International Liquid Crystal Society; Society for Information Displays. Associate editor of the “Optical Journal”. http://loiko.org
The ordered structures of particles are widely used in creation of photonic crystals, synthetic opals, antireflection coatings, transmission and reflection filters, diffusers, detectors, resonators, lasers, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, etc. There is a solution  for determining coherent (directly transmitted and specularly reflected) component of radiation scattered by a short-range ordered particulate monolayer. It takes into account the multiple scattering of waves and is based on the quasicrystalline approximation (QSA) proposed by Lax . In many cases (for example, in optimization of light absorption by solar cells) it is important to know not only the coherent, but also the incoherent (diffuse) component of light. The solutions to this problem obtained in the single scattering approximation (SSA) and in the interference approximation  are known. In these approximations, the monolayer is treated as a system of independent scatterers: each particle is in the field of only the incident wave. The regions of their applicability are limited by small relative refractive indices, low concentrations, and/or large sizes of particles; because they do not take into account multiple scattering of waves.
In this presentation we report the method to solve the considered problem, which takes into account multiple scattering of waves in the two dimensional layer (monolayer)  of particles. It gives the solution for coherent and incoherent (scattered) parts of the transmitted and reflected light. We analyzed angular distribution and absorption of light by the monolayer of c-Si particles as applied to the enhancement of radiation harvesting in the solar cells . The results for layers with the short range spatial order and layers with imperfect long range order are presented. They are in good agreement with the known theoretical and experimental data.
Chunchao Qi and Xinhui Tan
China Communication Technology Co., Ltd, China
All-fiber terahertz time domain spectroscopy system
Dr.Chunchao Qi joined China Communication Technology Co., Ltd (CCT) in 2015and was promoted to vice president in 2018. Prior attending CCT, he was a senior engineer at the Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech). He received his PhD from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology. He is a senior member of OSA and was selected for the National Science and Technology Programmes Expert Database of China. His primary research interests lie in the field of terahertz sources, quasi-optical devices and semiconductor carrier lifetime measurement. Recently,Dr. Qi focuses on millimetre/terahertz wavespectrum and imaging. He has published 14 papers indexed by Science Citation Index (SCI) and held 46 patents (licensed).
Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been proved particularly valuable in the field of semiconductors characterization, molecular spectroscopy, and biomedical applications. THz-TDS system is becoming more flexible, more stable and low-cost. In this work, we present an all-fiber THz-TDS system which mainly consists of a 1560nm fiber femtosecond laser, a highly accurate PZT fiber stretcher, and fiber-coupled InGaAs/InAlAs photoconductive antennas (PCAs). Using polarization maintaining dispersion compensation fiber (PMDCF), the pulse widths of the laser at the ends of PCAs were compressed to less than 100fs with 3dB bandwidth about 50nm after 46-meter polarization maintaining (PM) fiber propagation. Time delay accuracy was enhanced owing to the stretching length calibration of the fiber stretcher. Thus, our system can achieve 80ps scan range, 40dB peak dynamic range (for a scan). This all-fiber THz-TDS system is portable, compact, and suitable for industrial environment and field applications.
Bekir Sami Yilbas
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia
Laser texturing of alloy surfaces towards self-cleaning applications
Bekir Sami Yilbas obtained his PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from Birmingham University in UK in 1982. He worked and affiliated with various universities and some of these include The University of Birmingham, Glasgow University, Erciyes University, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Korean Institute of Science and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others. He is currently a Distinguished University Professor at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals in Saudi Arabia. His research area covers laser machining and applications, surface sciences and engineering, thermal processing, and energy materials. He published over 800 papers in international journals and presented over 100 papers in conferences. He received many awards over the years due to his scientific achievements. Some of these include President of India’s Prize for 1988, the best researcher awards from KFUPM (1997, 2002, 2007), Silver Jubilee Medal for the outstanding achievements in Materials and Manufacturing 2005 by Silesian University of Technology, Poland, Doctor of Engineering Degree from Birmingham University (2005), Donald Julius Groen Prize for 2007 from by Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE), Manufacturing Industries Division, UK, Professor W. Johson International Gold Medal for 2008 by awarded by the Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies Steering Committee. Professor Fryderyk Staub Golden Owl Award by World Academy of Metals, and Almarai’s Distinguished Scholar Prize, awarded by King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia. He contributed to teaching and training of many graduate students in Mechanical Engineering and related fields.
Texturing of surfaces remains critical for self-cleaning applications. In the present study, laser gas assisted and repetitive pulse treatment of various alloy surfaces is presented towards achieving the surface texture characteristics composing of hierarchal micro/nano pillars. The resulting surface texture characteristics and wetting state are analyzed using the analytical tools. The surface energy of the laser treated surface is determined adopting the contact angle method. It is demonstrated that laser repetitive pulse treatment results in the combination of melting and ablation at the surface. This in turn forms hierarchal micro/nano pillars distribution on the surface. The wetting state of the laser treated surface remains mostly in hydrophobic; however, some surfaces become hydrophilic because of the large gap size between the micro/nano pillars. The surface free energy of the laser treated surface is similar to that corresponding to those corresponding to commercially produced nitride or oxide coating surfaces.
Lumentum & University of Texas at Dallas, USA
DAY 01 CONTINUATION-High-Speed Optical Transceiver Technology for Data Centers (4 Hours)
Dr. Ricardo Saad is presently an R&D Director at Lumentum (spin off from JDSU). He is also a faculty in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD). He has been at UTD since 2001. At Lumentum he is presently responsible for the research and development of high-speed optical transceivers for datacenters. He previously work in high-speed tunable transceivers. Dr. Saad has worked for over 25 years in engineering and managerial roles in the development of optical transceivers and subsystems at Alcatel (now Nokia), Tellabs, Finisar, Avanex, Menara Networks, Xtera Communications, JDSU and Harmonics. At UTD, he lectures graduate and undergraduate courses in RF & Microwaves, Optical Communications, Optical Transceiver Design, Analog Circuits, Electromagnetics, and Advance Mathematics.
Dr. Saad has over 20 papers in conferences and journals and he has written two chapters in books. He holds 6 US patents in optical transceiver technology and Raman amplifiers. He was the recipient of the instructor of the year awards in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Texas at Dallas in 2010 and 2013.
He received the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Toronto in 1996, the MSEE from the University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1989, and the Diploma in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from the National University at Cordoba, Argentina in 1986.
High-speed optical transceivers are one of the key technologies in the development of modern optical communications systems. The demand for more bandwidth due to the high growth on internet traffic has generated the need for optical transceivers that work at very high speeds. Optical transceivers operating at 400 Gbs and 1 Tbs will be deployed in the near future. Microwaves and high-speed optoelectronics are key technical areas for the development of the next generation optical transceivers. This short course introduces fundamental concepts of high-speed optical transceivers. Topics are presented in a step-by-step approach starting from fundamental electrical engineering concepts. Optical communication concepts are introduced at the beginning of the course to highlight the different applications and requirements for optical transceivers. The operation of key components such as high-speed photodiodes, lasers, electro-absorption and Mach-Zehnder modulators, transimpedance amplifiers, and drivers are introduced from a practical viewpoint. Different optical transceiver architectures and their corresponding implementations are presented. Design and characterization techniques of optical transceivers are reviewed. Impairments on optical transceivers are highlighted. The course concludes presenting different state-of-the art optical transceivers for multiple applications including optical transceiver for data centers.
Fundamental of Optical Communications
- Multimode and single mode fibers
- Multimode and Chromatic dispersion effects.
- Dispersion compensation using optical fibers.
- Attenuation on optical fibers.
- Different bands in optical fibers: O-band, S-band, C-band, L-band.
- Standard optical frequencies in optical communications.
- Non-linearities in optical fibers.
- Brief description of optical amplifiers
- Basic optical communication system configurations
Optical Transceiver Architecture
- General Architecture of Optical Transceivers
- Multisource Agreement Form Factors.
- Photodetection Process
- Responsivity, quantum efficiency, dark current definitions.
- PIN Phododetector: operation, electrical model
- Avalanche photodetectors (APD), operation, electrical model.
- PIN and APD photodetectors specifications.
- Characterization of photodetectors.
- Examples of commercially available photodetectors.
Modeling of Optical Receivers
- Noise in electronic circuits.
- Noise in linear circuits.
- Noise theory applied to optical receivers.
- PIN noise model.
- APD noise model.
- Basic architecture of optical receives.
- Bit error rate, Q-factor definition.
- Relationship between sensitivity and extinction ratio, noise, and bit error rate.
- Effect of threshold adjustment on the performance of optical receivers.
- Effect of finite rise time in optical receiver sensitivity. Optical dispersion effect.
- Basic configuration of optical receivers
- Main specification of optical receivers
- Receiver Optical Sub-Assembly (ROSA ) examples.
Transimpedance Amplifier- Post Amplifiers
- Transimpedance amplifiers (TIA) specifications
- Linear transimpedance amplifier-Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
- Limiting transimpedance amplifiers (LA)
- Architectures of transimpedance amplifiers
- FETs and BJT front-ends for transimpedance amplifier.
- Post-amplifier specifications
- Examples of commercially available TIAs, LA and AGC amplifiers.
- Absorption, spontaneous emission, andstimulated emission
- Fabry-Perot cavity.
- Principle of operation of lasers.
- Fabry-Perot laser operation
- DFB and DBR laser operation
- VCSEL operations
- Tunable laser operation
- Examples of commercially available lasers.
- Architecture of optical transmitters
- Transmitter specifications
- Direct modulated transmitters
- External modulated transmitters: Electro-absorption and Mach-Zehnder modulators.
- RF & microwave drivers for optical transmitters
- Transmitter utilizing thermo-electric coolers/heaters.
Optical Transceiver architectures for different Form factors
- Multisource Agreements (MSA) for 10 Gbs transceivers
- Architecture and operation of10 Gbs optical transceivers
- Examples of 10 Gbs optical transceivers.
- MSAs for 100 Gbs transceivers
- Architecture and operation of 100 Gbs optical transceivers.
- Effect of dispersion on bit error rate performance.
- Transceivers under low optical signal to noise ratio: effect on the BER performance.
- Optical transceivers with clock data recovery (CDR)
- Optical transceivers with forward error correction (FEC)
Test Methodologies for Optical Transceivers
- Optical characterization
- Electrical characterization
Impairments in Optical Transceivers
- Optical impairments
- Electrical impairments
Application for Optical Transceivers
- Datacom and data centers
- Passive Optical Networks.
- Examples of optical transceiver for different applications.
Importance of this short course:
High-speed optical transceivers are presently working at microwave frequencies. In the next few years, 400 Gbs and 1 Tbs optical transceiver will be developed due to the demand of more bandwidth for internet applications. As such high-speed electronic (RF & Microwaves) components will be developed. The development of those components required RF & Microwave knowledge as well as a detail understanding of high-speed optoelectronics. Presently, some major Microwave-core companies are designing microwave components for high-speed optical transceivers. In general, there is not a full understanding within microwave companies on what to develop for the next generation optical transceivers. Also, optoelectronics components do not have a clear understanding on the capabilities of microwave technology. This is because standard electrical engineering curriculum does not integrate both areas of electrical engineering. The main objective of this course is to introduce to the attendees the fundamentals topics related to optoelectronics and high-speed optical transceiver.
Previous Experience teaching short courses:
He taught short courses (1-week long each) on high-speed optical receivers and high-speed optical transmitters (as separate topics) and on optical communications for Finisar corporation engineers in Ipoh, Malaysia, between 2006 and 2009. He had also given some lecturers on optical transceivers at JDSU (now Lumentum) in an effort to train engineering resources of the company. He also created and lectured once a year a graduate course on high speed optical transceivers (EEOP6338 High-Speed Optical Transmitters and Receivers) since 2013 in the Department of Electrical Engineers. The objective of the course is to prepare engineers that are capable to understand high-speed optical transceiver technology which requires a deep understanding in communications, optoelectronics, and RF & Microwaves. A similar course to the one that he is proposing was taught at IEEE International Symposium in Microwaves, May 2016 in San Francisco. This was an invited short course by the Short Course Committee.
Short Course Learning Objectives and Outcomes:
- Ability to understand optical communications concepts related to optical transceiver design.
- Ability to understand high-speed optical receivers circuits and architectures
- Ability to apply noise theory to optical receivers and its relationship with sensitivity.
- Ability to understand different photodetectors and its application in optical transceivers
- Ability to understand transimpedance, limiting and AGC amplifiers.
- Ability to understand high-speed optical transmitter circuits and architectures.
- Ability to understand different laser types and their operations and applications.
- Ability to understand internal and external modulation in optical transmitters (i.e. electro-absorption and Mach-Zehnder Modulators).
- Ability to understand impairments in optical transceivers.
- Ability to understand latest technologies in the design of high-speed optical transceivers.
Method of Presentation:
The short course is presented using Power Point slides. Some videos or demonstrations in internet are presented to complement the material. The material is presented assuming no prior knowledge of the audience on optical transceivers. As such, fundamental material relevant to optical transceivers is presented in step-by-step approach. Since he has been working in (and also teaching) these technologies for many years, he has a sense on the difficulties that attendees without prior experience in optical transceivers may have. The material is presented in a clear and systematic approach. Fundamental concepts are introduced first, and then it is followed by basic applications and then, once the attendees have a clear understanding of the topics under discussion, state-of-the art applications are introduced.
Material to be distributed to the Attendees:
Copies of the slides presented in the course are available to the attendees. That material can be either provided as a hardcopy or softcopy. He believes hardcopy versions are more efficient since attendees can take notes for each slide. For the hardcopy version of the slides, he recommends one slide per page with space (about ½ page) for the attendees to take notes. He is flexible on this to attend the requirements for short courses of the conference.